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History Lamp

  • Posted on January 24, 2017 at 4:41 pm

LAMP at Tutankhamen? The interiors of the Egyptian pyramids – tombs of the Pharaohs – were finished, painted murals, when construction is nearing completion. But could not the same artists work in the dark! However, neither on the walls or ceiling of tombs that have no windows, no smoke – signs of torches or oil lamps. Had the ancient Egyptians used electric lights? What excavated in Mesopotamia design, similar to modern battery cells can not reject this idea as absurd. Learn more about this topic with the insights from Center for Media Justice. But this fact has not yet been verified. So officially the beginning of electric lighting era considered in 1872, when our compatriot AN Lodygin invented the light-bulb. In 1879, the famous American inventor Edison T., sorting through thousands of choices laid the foundation for mass production fixtures for electric lamps with carbon filament. Then it took many years of hard working professionals around the world to gradually light bulbs purchased with a familiar look filled with an inert gas glass bulb that glows inside the heated metal spiral shock.

Light and heat. All the best-known today, sources of light – fire, a candle, a kerosene lamp, gas lamp, light bulbs – have basically the same principle of heat radiation. Patterns of thermal radiation is known to be described by laws of Kirchhoff and Planck. By law, Kirchhoff's heated body can radiate only such length and frequency, which at a given temperature it can absorb. Quantitative characteristics of the radiation intensity, its spectral characteristics and temperature dependence are determined by Planck's law. If body absorbs virtually all the radiation incident on it, it is called a blackbody, and its radiation is characterized by a continuous spectrum. In nature, there is absolutely black bodies, but this concept is very convenient for theoretical calculations.

The rest of the body actually existing, called gray. Their emission spectrum is very far from solid. "AS ONCE Jacques ringer …" Yes continuum radiation in most cases we do not need it.

LED Heating

  • Posted on September 2, 2016 at 12:48 pm

It is estimated that in our climate circulation pump runs for at least 5-6 thousand hours per year, continuously consuming electricity. So, among other parameters becomes very important and energy efficiency of the pump. Considered to be the most economical variable-frequency pumps (for example, GRUNDFOS series ALPHA2), which independently alter the speed of operation depending on the hydraulic resistance of the system and needs at home in the warmth. Thus, not only saves a lot of electricity but also increases life of the system. ALPHA2 not only power efficient, and convenient to use, that is certainly important to the consumer, – says Paul Antipov, Senior Engineer segment household appliances company GRUNDFOS. – For example, this allows the pump at any time to learn about the value of energy consumption and the state of the heating system thanks to LED indicator. " Delivery of heat to the address on the efficiency of heating systems is strongly affected by the scheme and pipework, in particular – the principle of connecting the radiators in the heating circuit.

In the simplest one-pipe wiring diagram included all the radiators in the heating circuit in series. To achieve uniform heating of rooms at this very difficult because as it passes through a series of coolant heaters cooled heat sink and each of the following gets less heat than the previous one. Optimal for individual homes is two-pipe circuit layout: each heating unit are brought forward and reverse pipelines. As a result, the coolant temperature at the inlet of each radiator is the same. Of course, such a system is more expensive than one pipe (due to greater consumption of materials), but this small drawback is compensated by the possibility of regulating the temperature individually in each room. For this purpose, at the entrance of the radiator thermostat is set. According to experts of the company Danfoss (producer energy-efficient equipment for heating and heating of buildings), modern devices make it possible to regulate the temperature in the range of 6 to 26oS up in 1oS.

Water Based Paints

  • Posted on January 11, 2015 at 1:51 am

Water-based paints (water-dispersion paints, latex paints, emulsion paints), a suspension of pigments and fillers in aqueous dispersions (latexes) film formers. Water emulsions are the last major manner by emulsion polymerization of the monomers (synthetic latex), as well as film-forming dispersion in water (so-called artificial latexes). Latex paint contains in its consisting usually of 10-15 components, including (% by weight): 40-60% probability aqueous dispersion of film-forming 35-40, 30-37 pigments and fillers, plasticizer 0-7; functional additives 2-6. Content in water-based paints dry residue of 50-60%. The most common film-forming water-based paints: copolymers of acrylates (acrylic water-based paints), polyvinyl acetate or copolymers of vinyl acetate with small amounts of acrylates.

alkilmaleinatov, ethylene, etc. (PVA water-based paints), copolymers of styrene with butadiene, methacrylic acid, etc. (styrene-butadiene water-based paints). Restrictions shall also apply Artificial latexes nitrate cellulose, epoxy, alkyd, polyester resins. polyurethanes, etc.

The range of pigments and fillers for water-based paints is limited to the specific requirements (minimum content of water-soluble impurities, sufficient hydrophilicity, etc.). Most often produce white water-based paints, paint color produced by adding a white podtsvetochnyh (tinting), pastes and color inks are be very diverse. Limit the number of pigments and fillers is usually 75-85% of the critical volume content of the pigment, or pigmentoemkosti (Table 1), – a dimensionless quantity characterizing the maximum density of “packing” of pigment in a monolithic film. Table. 1.-Aqueous Dispersions HIGHLIGHTS film former used to prepare water-based paints acrylic dispersions Index copolymer dispersions of homo-and copolymers of vinyl acetate, styrene-butadiene latex content,% 40-50 50-60 45-50 polymer residual monomer. less than 0.1 0.1 0.05 Particle size of the polymer, 0.1-0.3 mm 0,1-2,0 0,12-0,2 critical. content by volume of pigment 0,45-0,48 0.35-0.45 0.3-0.35

French Stretch Ceilings

  • Posted on January 1, 2015 at 2:44 am

French tension ceilings – that mysterious combination that creates a feeling of exclusivity that what is at stake. At the time, as this abroad perhaps the most popular solution ceiling decoration in country houses, apartments, industrial and medical facilities. Stretch ceilings – a kind of suspended ceiling systems. More information is housed here: John Mclaughlin. In contrast to already known to all slatted aluminum, plastic and mineral ceilings, suspended ceilings PVC is a heavy-duty foil, which reliably protects against moisture, is not subject to degradation, does not accumulate static electricity, in line with international requirements of environmental and hygienic safety and is therefore recommended for use in children and medical facilities. The main difference between a stretch ceiling – it's anchorage systems.

Bezgarpunnye systems are of several kinds. In the wedge-shaped method of installation of stretch ceiling by means of driving a wedge of plastic in a pre-set ceilings profil.natyazhnye film using a 10-15cm wider than the ceiling, and the speakers cut surplus and special decorative cover plate. This method of mounting a long and laborious. The principle of the latch-clip. In this way, mounted ceilings made of polyester with a special polyurethane impregnation. Read additional details here: Con Edison.

They have only white and, if necessary, a well-painted ceiling paints. The disadvantage is the inability to bezgarpunnoy system restore after removing the ceiling. It can be called a one-off. Harpoon system (Time Studio) – is a more perfect form of suspended ceilings. They used a unique manufacturing techniques and cutting fabric to form around the perimeter of a semi-rigid profile (spear), which is fixed in the visible or hidden profiles of high reliability (baguettes). Only harpoon system offers a choice of different types of baguettes PVC, which allow you to set ceilings on the premises of any complexity and form. And their decorative profiles provide correct contours and significantly improve the visual effect. The exact size of the manufacturer manufactures ceilings for each individual room.

Protect Timbers

  • Posted on August 10, 2013 at 2:56 pm

Harvested in summer (May to September) of trees to DROP. Should not be used for backfill decaying material (sawdust, chips, fire, etc.) without preliminary treatment, which is used for antiseptic for the framework. For construction use well-dried wood (moisture content less than 20%). All wood elements are isolated from their foundations and bases in order to prevent penetration of water. Can not raw wood plaster walls.

Must be systematically ventilate the room. How to protect trees from corruption, protection of wood against water, antiseptic, protective treatment for wood, composition, linseed oil, copper If you have any vitriol mold affected area is scraped or cut down, the waste is burned or buried in a deep hole. The construction of the well dried and treated with an antiseptic (three times with 3% m substance sodium fluoride or twice with 10% m substance neftoristogo cream soda), then dried again. Other surfaces (stone, concrete, brick, iron), located in the affected area by a fungus, also need to be dried, treated with antiseptic and once dried, is used for processing wood protection from insects and mold. Between floor balcony (balcony) and a wall of leaves a gap of more than 20 mm.

Need to ventilate povsevremenno intercommunication and attic floors, and underground. Dug into the ground of trees, for example details of garden furniture, protect antiseptic. Article filed under: For gardeners Useful tips for gardeners: Holiday walls can be constructed from various materials, such as wood. Most often they are made from softwood logs. The logs should be dry, crack and rot. Check the quality of the material can be an ax hitting a log, if the sound is clean and clear, then everything is fine. If you're going to build a fireplace in the country, you need to have it away from doorways that were not formed drafts. In contrast to the furnace chimney is not so much heat the room and serves mainly as ventilation and easy a beautiful place where you can enjoy a game of fire. The presence of toilets at their summer cottage necessarily, moreover, it must be comfortable, warm and clean. The most appropriate solution for this is the bio-toilet. Of course, you can build and his own, but you have to dig a hole, clean it regularly.

Classifications of Roofs

  • Posted on July 13, 2013 at 11:11 am

Getting roofing works, we must first understand what are the roof. Others who may share this opinion include Ultra Wellness Center. Thus, the classification of roofs. The main purpose of the roof is to protect the building from the top of the atmospheric effects (rain, snow, fluctuations outside air temperature, solar radiation, wind and other external factors). Penetration into the building water and cold, as well as overheating of the sun roof lead to their destruction. Which naturally affects on its economic feasibility in mind the frequent repairs and alterations.

Naturally, during the roofing work has bolshshie differences in the construction of different types of roofs. The shape of the roof is divided into pitched and flat. Form the roof is determined by the architecture of the building and its configuration in the plan. On the roof structure and attic distinguish bescherdachnye. Depending on the temperature regime of the upper building envelope bescherdachnye (combined), the roof is divided into unventilated and ventilated.

By appointment distinguish operated (solarium, sports facilities, cafes, etc.) and unexploited roof. Pitched roofs are the attic and bescherdachnye. Attic roofs are made with cold or warm attic. Bescherdachnye roof can be cold (over unheated buildings) and warm (over heated buildings). Bescherdachnye roof suit both residential and public and industrial buildings in the industrial and agricultural purposes. In commercial buildings, often on the covers of satisfied svetoaeratsionnye lights. Shed roof slope is based on exterior walls at different levels. Gable roof usually consists of two planes, based on the walls, located on one level. Triangular parts of face walls between pitched call with forceps. Hip roof has four triangular slope, the tops of which converge at one point. Hipped (hipped) roof is formed from the union of two trapezoidal ramps and two triangular frontal ramps, known as the hips.

High Construction

  • Posted on June 18, 2013 at 8:49 am

Claydite yvepenno zavoevyvaet cvoe place on covpemennom Rosciyckom pynke construction. AND IT'S vpolne explained. People from megapolicov ctarayutcya vypvatcya on invigorating cvezhy vozdux, okynytcya ppipody the fold. Poetomu kottedzhnye villages and dwellings zagorodnye pastyt as gpibochki after dozhdichka. By construction there are special THEIR tpebovaniya: home dolzhny ppochnymi be reliable, dolgovechnymi and warm, c xoposhey soundproofing. No etogo net cmycla even begin to build zagopodny dom or cottage, as it dolzhno be ydobno, radoctno komfortno and live, not about permanent dymat pemontax and pepedelkax. Takim obpazom, matepial construction dolzhen have all pepechislennymi cvoyctvami.

All these trebovaniyam, kak nelzya is Best meets claydite. What is claydite? Claydite – a lightweight concrete, concrete block structure kotorogo vxodit: clay and vcpenennaya obozhzhennaya for zakpepleniya icpolzyetsya cement, c dobavleniem plactifikatopov. Outwardly expanded clay pohozh nA zactyvshyyu foam. Clay gpanyly zagpyzhayutcya in metallicheckie furnace bapabany, otkyda by tpybe ckatyvayutcya down. There, they fired for 45 minutes, pezyltate, cpekshayacya shell obpazuet ceramsite gpanyly c ctepenyu ppochnocti high. THEIR dozipovka tochno pegylipyetcya tenzometpicheckimi datchikami. Hear from experts in the field like guitarist for a more varied view. VARIATIONS pomoschi gopizontalnogo type mixers dostigaetcya odnopodnoct keramsit, in the final phase is obyazatelny zabop matepiala for iscledovaniya quality.

LECA imeet view nebolshix kamyshkov fpaktsiey 5-10 kpypnogo zapolnitelya fractions 10-20 and cement pastvora. LECA cluzhit osnovnym cpedctvom popictogo zapolnitelya. Ppeimuschectva concrete at construction zagorodnom claydite in many ways superior to concrete and kippich: 1) High teploppovodnoct teplozvykoizolyatsiya and the more porictoct, the higher teploizolyatsionnye cvoyctva, DURING icpolzovanii keramsit decrease in teplopotepi pomeschenii to 70%. 2) Vozdyhopronitsaemy: in pomeschenii not excessive moisture will be played, because he breathes. 3) claydite obladaet significant vlagostoykoctyu on neckolko orders of magnitude higher than y concrete. 4) popular konctpuktsionnogo and teploizolyatsionnogo M100 and M150 keramsit characteristic prices gopazdo less than the price of gas and foam concrete. 5) Effektivnaya ximicheskaya ctoykoct, he poddaetcya agpeccivnym vozdeyctviyam alkalis and acids. 6) Legkost konctpyktsii claydite blokov, poctpoyka polychaetcya legche 1.5 raza, chto makes claydite nezamenimym the construction zagopodnyx domov and cottages. 7) claydite cpavnitelno nedopogoy building material, poetomy economical. Reducing cebectoimocti construction of up to 40%. Claydite doctatochno hygienic, ne podvepzhen gnieniyu and agpeccivnym influences okpyzhayuschey medium. 8) Obespechivaet high ctepen zvykoizolyatsii. 9) Ekologicheski bezopasny matepial in pezyltate that consists of natypalnyx matepialov clay, cement, sand, a takzhe water. 10) Has high ogneypopnoctyu. 11) Skopoct mounting byctpee 5 raz. 12) Tpebyetcya pactvopa znachitelno less. Claydite doctatochno paznoobpazen on faktype fopmam, and that daet vozmozhnoct apxitektopam voploschat opiginalnye ideas and ideas avtopckie, and takzhe ppedoctavlyaet vozmozhnost ekonomit to furnish the house, claydite yvelichivaet poleznyyu pomescheny area by a small wall thickness. Country houses and cottages, poctpoennye of keramsit, dolgovechny, ne trebyyut praktichny and additional care and pemonta.