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Construction

  • Posted on September 8, 2018 at 10:26 pm

Because such industry produces only spans up to 6 m, with a larger step bearings are used non-insulated thin-ribbed decking, followed by a device on the construction of steam, heat and waterproofing coating. As a carrier of the bar elements are typical of reinforced concrete beams with parallel belts or gable farm spans 18, 24 and 30 m polygonal, triangular, with diagonal segment or bezraskosnoy bars, trusses with parallel zones. With spans of 18 m or more farms than concrete-emki than the beam, while the spans 24 and 30 m of their weight by 30-40% smaller than the mass of beams. Efforts thrust is transferred to a clean floor placed lower torque. If the heel of the arches are located above the floor, raspor transmit on adjacent buttresses or horizontal load-bearing structures, for example, overlap adjacent to the hall the building. With spans up to 30 m crossbars of frames and arches.

Any structural engineering coatings (decks, girders, trusses) are protruding into the interior edges that are not always acceptable to the interior composition. Therefore, in the halls of public buildings they often cover the suspended ceiling, which not only serves a decorative function, but also isolates the space required to accommodate utilities – ventilation, wiring, etc. The use of frames and arches to design coatings is episodic in nature, associated with the specific space-planning decisions of the hall. Most often, single-span arch design and a frame-trehshar Nirn, which reduces the sensitivity construction to the erratic rainfall base. Stability of the system of plane arches and frames provide a vertical connection between the racks of frames and rigid connection elements cover with bolts.

When the lungs (not concrete) coatings use special communication. In the process of designing buildings with the pivotal building blocks of their relative positions with the enclosing design in different ways (inside, outside, partly inside and partly outside). In the final selection option, taking into account technical and economic indicators should be borne in mind that the first provides a minimal amount of internal space and projecting outward bearing structures give tektonichnye features architecture of the building, the second – the maximum amount and tektonichnye division interior with atektonichnom appearance, and the last in a temperate and cold climates is only suitable for unheated buildings (Stalls seasonal exhibitions, etc.) for supporting structures of steel or reinforced concrete. When carrying the timber constructions possible to use this option and in heated buildings.

Attic Buildings

  • Posted on August 23, 2018 at 8:33 am

If it is carried out through the stairwell and placed under the first intermediate platform, it is necessary that its mark was placed at a level permit the free passage under it and the placement of the entrance doors and vestibule. This condition is ensured by a special device basement march in 5-6 steps, leading from the entrance to the first storey floor, and height passage under the ground at least 2,1 m. Learn more on the subject from Bernie Sanders. Front door of the building satisfied the outside stairs to the platform (the porch), or a platform height not less than 150 mm. Above the porch or entrance platform arranged visor protects from the rain. Stairs should have access to the attic or roof. In buildings of 5 storeys rise up to the attic to arrange the metal ladder to the upper storey ground through a hatch in the attic floors, in buildings of more than 5 floors in mid-flight stairs.

Volume stairwell attached to the volume of the engine room elevator shafts. Construction of stairs, or perform polnosbornymi melkoelementnymi mainly of prefabricated concrete elements. The main solution structures of stairs is polnosbornoe at which pace stair going from one floor of four (two flights and two sites) or two elements (two flights with poluploschadkami) elements. The design of the four elements is the most widespread and used in buildings of various building systems. Construction of two elements, although somewhat less labor intensive to install, because of more metal is used less frequently: mainly in the frame – prefabricated buildings with a bearing on the primary and secondary girders frame. Polnosbornye stairs usually contain the same type of construction of stair landings in the form of concrete ribbed plate, a special rush on one of the longitudinal ribs which serves for supporting marches. Construction marches varied: thin-walled folded marches, marches with one or two longitudinal ribs bearing on lower surface. Melkoelementnye stairs made of a horizontal () and oblique () beams, which are stacked prefabricated concrete slabs ploschadochnye and individual level. Krupnoelementnye design more effective Indicators cost by 40%, labor costs for the construction of 4,5 times the flow rate of steel in 2,5 times and cement consumption by 50%. Therefore melkoelementnye ladder is rarely used: the reconstruction of existing buildings or the erection of individual objects with untypical dimensions of stairs.

Non-standard Metal Doors

  • Posted on April 23, 2018 at 12:48 am

Install steel doors if you decide to buy and install a reliable metal door, then only buy high-quality design with good locks and other components that are important for the input of a metal door, not do. As is known, the correct execution immediately dismantling and assembly work when installing a new steel door – it's part of the success and ensure that the door will last as long as possible, keeping during operational period and outer beauty, and convenience of daily use, and reliability. For this reason, the installation of steel doors must meet the professionals. Typically, the vendor providing this service (many – free). If you prefer to use the services of professional installers input metal doors, then you need to watch the process, that all was done correctly.

When the model produces steel doors, special leave slight discrepancy standard door size – about 1.5 – 2 centimeters. This small difference can more accurately align the door on a level. Remaining after the installation metal doors clearances just poured foam. But before you start installation of metal doors, it is necessary to dismantle the old one. Removed an old door, removed the door frame, door thoroughly cleaned. May need to align the doorway – removal of cement, all projections and irregularities. Especially a lot of masters paying attention to irregularities because of the level they can be extremely noticeable. If you install a metal door with a view of the uneven hand, it can stand sideways. A slanting position the door in the doorway leads to worse consequences, such as random opening and closing the door (if not close it to the latch or lock), of lock bolts.

Score Designs Damage

  • Posted on January 3, 2014 at 3:11 am

Corruption is considered to be charred materials from which the design is completed, at a depth of more than 0.2 cm, and their fusion with signs of burning – charring or the formation of a melt in black with bright colors color source material, as well as burnout, separation with the collapse of the materials from which the sample is made, the formation of cracks passing through the entire layer of material. Damage to allow for (describe) stages: – first stage – without opening the sample to the registration of damage, their size and location (if available) – second stage – with the opening of the sample, with registration and a description of damage in their sizes. In this case, registered damage to the sample to a depth of 0.2 cm or more. Are not considered damage: – length 10 cm – Single collapse of a structural mass of not more than 1,0 kg – Single-through burn-out area of no more than 2000 cm2. Novelist is likely to increase your knowledge. The thermal flow and temperature values represent in tabular form, depending on the time of fire exposure in comparison with similar parameters in the calibration chamber for firing a subsequent determination that there is thermal effect. Allowed to determine the extent of damage to the sample on the results of one test.

The results of measurements of the extent of damage of the sample is allowed to round up to 1 cm test results, measurements damage reflect in the minutes (record) the prescribed form. To the protocol (the report) should be attached to the design documentation detailing. Thermal insulation system of external walls of buildings and their cladding with the outer side are divided into classes of fire danger in accordance with Table D.2 of the least favorable indicators. Symbol class of fire danger systems insulation of external walls of buildings and structures and their linings from the outside includes the letters "SR" and figures, while the figure in brackets indicates the duration of heat exposure in a test sample in minutes. When replacement materials in the construction of thermal insulation and cladding exterior building envelope, the class of fire hazard which was previously set for re-used materials must be defined: – heat of combustion material on the stb en iso 1716 – a group of flammability in accordance with gost 30244 (average maximum temperature of flue gases, the presence of burning droplets of melt, the degree of damage on the length and weight, duration of self-burning) – Flame Spread Index gost 12.1.044-89. In this case, the fire-technical characteristics of the proposed materials must be iden-energy, or better than replacement. Identification of materials used in thermal insulation system or tiling should be carried out in terms of calorific value of stb en iso 1716. Subject to the fluctuation of the index from a previously defined by no more than 5% for the worse materials are identical.