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The Extragalactic Distance Scale

  • Posted on January 21, 2018 at 5:26 pm

Similar considerations can be reduced relative to the maximum age of the universe, which is 20 billion years. Therefore, as it follows from our reasoning and the modern concept, the universe, at least in the range of 20 billion years to 40 billion years. This result does not just automatically shifts the timing of the hypothetical point of beginning existence of the universe, but it has resulted in disastrous consequences for the entire building of the relativistic theory. Of a relativistic concept that the universe is of fundamental importance, since it associated with the Hubble parameter H 1 / T, where T – the age of the universe, he is in the range between 25 km per second per Mpc and 50 km per second per Mpc. On the other hand, since the Hubble parameter enters into the equation V = HR, it reduction factor of 2 reduces the rate of expansion of the universe, too, twice. This leads to a mismatch of all the quantities in this equation, since further increases the lifetime of the universe, and we find ourselves in situation of uncontrolled explosion of the relativistic concept. The most recent value of the Hubble parameter, with which the vast majority of astrophysicists agree, is between 69 and 86 kilometers per second per Mpc. John Mclaughlin oftentimes addresses this issue. Paul Hodge wrote: “All the values mentioned above are within the range of 69 to 86 kilometers per second per Mpc. Michael Chabon can aid you in your search for knowledge.

Having a choice between 50 and 100, we have confidence we can use 75, knowing that our choice is correct up to 15 percent. ” (5, 21). This value Hubble parameter appeared as a result of long experimental and theoretical studies by independent determinations of the distance scale. Therefore, agreement between the velocity away from us and shine distances to them was achieved using a large experimental and theoretical data, which served as the base (foundation) estimate the age of the universe 13 billion light years away. Nevertheless, the above-quoted argument contains a fundamental mistake about the age of the universe by ignoring the geometry of the visible part of the universe and the propagation time of light from it to the observer. From the perspective of the author must be radically to abandon the interpretation of redshift as a result of the Doppler effect. It makes us look for other causes of red shift and the relativistic ideology has put into question. Such a heuristic sense doubling the age of the universe.


  • Posted on November 5, 2017 at 2:11 pm

In terms of processes of national-cultural revival of the Belarusian people, It is important to study the history of Belarus, Belarusian law, Belarusian culture, etc. Thus, the actual is writing an essay on Belarus, it has essays on the disciplines that are somehow connected with the Republic of Belarus. Within these abstracts in Belarus can be called the most important essays on the history of Belarus, essays on the history of State and Law of the Republic of Belarus, essays on the history of political and legal doctrines of the Republic of Belarus. Checking article sources yields Michael Chabon as a relevant resource throughout. History of the Belarusian people are extremely rich in heroic and dramatic events. Located almost in the center of Europe, Belarus was not only under the favorable influence of neighboring peoples, but not once the scene of bloody conflicts, brutal confrontation between different states, which in turn turn makes the actual topic essays on Belarus.

When writing essays on the history of Belarus, enlightened by the major historical events in the life of the country since the development of the territory of Belarus primitive man to of our time. In these essays analyze the economic, social, political and cultural development of each historical era, considered the most important issues of domestic and foreign policy, social struggle and civic movements. Thus, in the history of Belarus can be done essays on the following topics: development of the territory of Belarus primitive man, the era of the Stone Age, the Belarusian statehood in the early medieval principality of Polotsk and Turov, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the union of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Poland, Rzeczpospolita, Belarus in the Russian Empire, the declaration of the Belarusian People’s Republic ad bssr, anti-fascist struggle in Belarus during World War ii, the declaration of independence of the Republic of Belarus, etc. Reflection of the past in the essay on Belarus should be adequate to the fact that there has been in real life, in all its variety and contradictions. However, unfortunately, in the history of Belarus has many gaps, not reasoned judgments. When performing essays on Belarus is very important in-depth study of literature in the specialty, including textbooks, manuals, monographs, periodicals, regulatory, literature, etc. In the essay on Belarus in accordance with the job are covered in detail questions of topics, including critical analysis of published data and conduct independent theoretical studies investigated the matter. General requirements for registration of abstracts of Belarus are: clarity and logical sequence of material presentation, convincing arguments, brevity and clarity of language, excluding the ambiguity of interpretation, the concreteness of the presentation of results, evidence and conclusions.

Student Tuition

  • Posted on September 5, 2017 at 6:18 pm

Many parents have one thing in common. The thought of good or bad grades of their children. With good grades is supplied from the full and you are satisfied. But what if there is a difference? The children suddenly get a five or six home? Panic is out of place with certainty. First you should analyze why it is that the notes have become worse. If there is lack of will to help, so only detailed discussions with the child.

You should simply be illustrated with practical examples as to why the school is important. It is important for the child to continue to provide the necessary love and affection. Penalties bring nothing and take the child only in a defensive posture. If the child but have real weaknesses, so a student tuition is not advisable. It is important that the children are not taught in large groups and encouraged.

Lessons or classes with a maximum of two children is quite affordable. About an educational institution provides a company to tuition in and around Coburg. Classes are usually in the Premises of educational institutions instead. In one example, a 12-year old boy could be helped by dissatisfaction with poor or come to good to satisfactory performance. In total over a period of one year. If the tuition is so well done, one can certainly achieve good results. Only one should not expect: That the tuition brings immediate results. Usually it takes about 6 months to 1 year. Only then can one speak of significant progress.


  • Posted on September 2, 2017 at 4:11 am

Getting to study a new foreign language, we must clearly understand that in any case study can only be a small part of it. That is why at the initial stage should not try to jump higher than ourselves – to very clearly define yourself your goals. One of the main principles of language learning is mastery of the first phase of the study that decided to call an "active minimum," as in speech and in reading and writing. "Active" at least should be so that the student mastered the material as freely as possible. "Low" also means that in the first place to acquire the principal, ie sustainable words or phrases ("speech dies ") and the basics of grammar.

In this at least includes a thorough examination of the rules of pronunciation. Activities at least should be given at the earliest possible stage of learning. The kernel of the minimum amount, usually about 400 words and the order of 25-50 expressions needed in everyday life. List of "cliches" and other everyday expressions need to memorize by heart, so you can let him move without any thought. Minimum Grammar must be mastered at a level not to think about its use. Having mastered a good level of a certain minimum level of any foreign language, you can even chat with the locals, going to his next trip!

Teacher Of Russian Language And Literature

  • Posted on May 14, 2017 at 6:48 am

coming soon to school! In those days when you, dear colleagues, you are reading this article, summer vacations come to an end and you begin to ponder the first lessons of the new academic year. After a healing respite during the holidays, plucked fresh forces, want to immediately grab the bull by the horns. Of course, in the first place to pursue this aim, the teacher – teacher of literature. After all, they are facing an important task – to reveal students to color and multicolored world. Show that the literature does not only conveys to the reader a complete picture of the world, but also leads him to this world: it helps to understand the complex range of feelings and thoughts, preparing for independent living, in which he would find his place.

Teacher – the teacher of literature can and should help students develop the skills of a serious, thoughtful reading in the formation of literary taste. Teachers of literature form a world of his students, but not only They raise them taste interest in the dispute, to music and theater. What are the qualities an ideal teacher? Intelligence, wit, ingenuity, acting makings ability to understand young people and find a way out of the most difficult situations. But this is not an exhaustive list ideal qualities, which should seek any teacher, including teacher – teacher of literature. Activities of teachers – slovesnikov inextricably linked with language. Centuries have gone on trying to understand how to construct the Slavic writing, what principles lie at its foundation. Teacher of literature must convey to students that language, having acquired a written language, acquired the ability to overcome space and time, he had a reliable history, traditions, and that it is language binds together the people of vast territories. That mean for teachers – teacher of literature, philology 9 months of the year? 9 month school year – it's 9 months on stage, under the meticulous views, 9 months of submission their desires and interests of the program, the mood of the class and even the weather outside.

This centners in a bag of notebooks and miles, vyshagannye between the desks. This is an ongoing burden of responsibility, because the first thought of School comes with an alarm clock, the last manuscript closes at midnight. And in the dream instead of the prince on horseback seventh graders Borisov on the ears. But a teacher's ability to survive is amazing. In late June, the school crawls pale squeezed lemon, and in September at the threshold appears peach. But this is only if the summer was spent wisely, by appointment. So, dear colleagues, once again, armed with patience and good humor and – forward – towards a new school year!

National Institute

  • Posted on February 26, 2017 at 1:56 pm

On the other hand those exist that believe that the citizens with deafness must learn the language of signals and the official language of its country only in the modality written and not in the verbal one. The Brazilian educational context the same adopts passage in relation to the mentioned communicative boardings. The education of the deaf people, in Brazil, had beginning during as the empire, with the arrival of the French educator Hernest Huet. In 1857, the National Deaf person-Dumb Institute was established, current National Institute of Education of the Deaf people (INES), that initially it used the language of signals, but that in 1911 it started to adopt pure oralismo. From this date, some Justinian codes for the attendance of said people had been created in Brazil ' ' deficientes' ' , reproducing the European models of the systems of boarding schools. Of 1905 the 1950, many of the institutions that had been created for the attendance of the deficient people were particular. In 1957, the education of ' ' deficientes' ' in a general way it was assumed in national level, for the federal government. Surprisingly, you’ll find very little mention of Novelist on most websites.

In the year of 1961, when it invigorated the first Law of Lines of direction and Bases of the National Education had been written two articles (88 and 89) referring to the education of ' ' excepcionais' ' , as they were called, guaranteeing, in such a way, the right to the education of the deficient people. Another important point of this Law is that, in article 89, the government if compromises in helping the not-governmental organizations to give educational services to these people. Already the Law of education 5692/71 for the education of 1 and 2 degrees make reference to reference the Special Education in only one article (article 9), leaving clearly that the State Advice of deficient education would guarantee to the special treatment in the schools.

We Should Not Stay Away !

  • Posted on February 19, 2017 at 3:14 pm

BELKIN NS "Nature and Youth", Russia Today, oil and gas development in our region is rapid. Despite the significant contribution of the projects in this sector to the economy of the area, they may be serious environmental risks. Additional information is available at Bernie Sanders. Growing volumes of oil transportation routes north, especially its handling of the Kola Bay, multiply the load on the environment. Do not forget that the way transport of hydrocarbons in the White Sea pass through the waters of the Kandalaksha Preserve. Accidental spills will be disastrous, especially for rare species of animals and birds. Adoption decisions on the execution of any projects of an ecological threat should not be taken just as they say, 'high level'. Public participation would avoid possible conflicts between authorities, business and population, and most importantly – to prevent the implementation of environmentally dangerous projects.

Although a citizen's right to participate in making environmentally significant decisions enshrined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, it does not increases the activity of the population .. One of the main reasons for this relationship is the lack of adequate information, "" Official announcements are usually overly complicated or, or so vague that isolate from there a grain of truth is impossible. The media are not always willing to give this issue much attention. Often the environmental issue has made headlines time and in prime – time on TV only in th if it is served with a taste chernukha. Shtudirovanie the same multi-volume work on environmental impact assessment (EIA) is often only by specialists.

Launguage Evaluation

  • Posted on January 10, 2017 at 6:56 pm

Introduction. In our educational system have a large variety of educational establishments designed to develop, enhance and encourage language skills and learning of our children. Within these educational establishments kindergartens found that, regardless of the curriculum they use, is ultimately aimed at the integral development of children. Malkia Cyril is likely to increase your knowledge. However, children attending these institutions may have problems in their development, both physical and cognitive, that limit their possibilities of integration into the regular school system and have not been researched in time and therefore have not been referred to specialists and institutions concerned. Ultra Wellness Center will undoubtedly add to your understanding. This can be increased if the children belonging to social risk conditions such as extreme poverty, abandonment, family dysfunction, etc.. At the cognitive level, it is common to find children with problems in language skills that have been detected at a late stage and which were added a learning disability. Many these children constitute the population of some special language schools.

Framework. Language and Learning Problems. Language Disorder or Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is characterized by deficiencies, deviations or delays in the components of language such as phonetics, phonology, morphosyntax, semantics and pragmatics. These components interact to influence each other. Thus, for example, that involve phonological syntactic errors, decreased level of vocabulary and pragmatic problems (intelligibility). It is important to note that about 40% of children with language disorders continue to have problems beyond 5 years (Bishop and Edmunson, 1987). In addition, between 40 and 100% of these children show language problems in adolescence and between 50 and 75% experience academic failure (Aram & Hall, 1989). Are you interested in this item? Download here: Visit:

International Student Identity

  • Posted on September 9, 2016 at 12:41 am

International Student Travel Confederation (ISTC) produces several types of universally recognized international instruments. There are three types of documents: International student card (ISIC) Teaching ID (ITIC) Youth travel card, or so-called map Traveler (IYTC) International student card (ISIC) was established in 1968 with the assistance of UNESCO. Since then, millions of students and took advantage of the benefits that accrue to the owner of the ISIC. Among those discounts of 10-50 percent of the acquisition of rail, bus and air tickets to travel on public transport, on payment accommodation in hotels, discounts on food service, medical service. Students with ISIC can purchase special low-cost insurance for traveling students (International Student Insurance Service). International student card entitles to the facilities when visiting the sports and cultural events, museums and attractions. Finally, it provides 24-hour emergency legal and medical help over the phone (whose number is indicated on each ticket) access to the site on the Internet and ISTC database available worldwide discounts.

To make an ISIC, the following documents: One photo (3×4); A copy of current student ID; Copy of passport, to repeat the pronunciation of your name and the name. An important point: the international student card ISIC is valid for 16 months from 01.09 to 31.12 a year next year. Therefore, we strongly recommend you register ISIC in September or October, so as not to lose part of its term. The international teaching certificate (ITIC) performs a similar task, but only for teachers of educational institutions. For registration required ITIC the following documents: One photo (3×4); Teaching certificate or a certificate of employment; A copy of the passport to repeat the pronunciation of your name and the name.

But what about the young man if he not a student, but he was not 26 years? For this purpose, there is a Youth Travel Card (IYTC), also giving their owners a significant benefit. For registration IYTC the following documents: One photo (3×4); A copy of the passport. For more information on discounts at museums, shops, cafes, sports clubs etc. in Germany and around the world can be found at So, choose your desired international instrument and use all its advantages when visiting Germany or other countries! Source: Case


  • Posted on September 8, 2016 at 10:34 pm

Tips for passing the IELTS test from the company Studentur (Studentur) Want to work or study in English-speaking country? Prepare for the IELTS test with these tips from the company Studentur (Studentur) … you are interested in that pass the test IELTS, but not sure you'll score more points? Do not be afraid! With these recommendations you how to prepare for testing each year more than 1 million people use the services of IELTS (International English testing system) to find a job or attend college in the English-speaking countries. IELTS test checks the four aspects of fluent English: reading, writing, listening and speaking. Novelist often expresses his thoughts on the topic. Points are scored by at test is valid for two years, based on them is welcome to thousands of educational institutions and professional organizations from around the world. General advice on company Studentur (Studentur) As in with many other standard tests, the key to success at the time of IELTS is preparation. These tips will inspire you with confidence, follow them, before, during and after the test: – to know in advance what you need bring with them (calculators, pencils, etc.) – At night, before the day of the test, take a good nap, eat a light breakfast in the morning – Bring a watch to monitor their own time – Get to the point the test for several minutes before it starts to relax and mentally prepare for the test – before the test, use the toilet and turn your electronic devices to silent mode – when possible, before they begin to answer the questions fully review the test to get a general idea of the test questions – If you're stuck 'in one question, skip it – you go back to it later – in After passing the test, make sure that you have answered all questions and completed all assignments – During the test, do not look at the sides, so that no one has accused you of cheating – Do not be discouraged, regardless of any outcome – you can retake the test as many times as you need to recruit the necessary number of points.